List of Illustrations


All illustrations by the author unless otherwise indicated.

1.01: A typical train platform at Penn Station
1.02: Retail concourse and train shed at London’s St. Pancras International Terminal
1.03: Westminster Station on the London Underground’s Jubilee Line extension
1.04: Norman Foster’s Canary Wharf Station on the Jubilee Line extension
1.05: SHoP’s vision for Penn Station and its environs (SHoP Architects, Gotham Gateway Presentation to the Municipal Art Society, May 2013)
1.06: The SOM scheme for a new Penn Station (Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill, Presentation to the Municipal Art Society, May 2013)
1.07:Program diagram by DS+R (Diller Scofidio + Benfro, Presentation to the Municipal Art Society, May 2013)

2.01: Temperature range (Climate Consultant 5.4)
2.02: Sky cover range (Climate Consultant 5.4)
2.03: Sun chart (Climate Consultant 5.4)
2.04: Sun shading chart for summer and fall (Climate Consultant 5.4)
2.05: Psychrometric chart based on California Energy Code (Climate Consultant 5.4)
2.06: Manhattan infrastructure improvements related to the Gateway Project, including Penn South at right. (Amtrak, Gateway Project presentation, February 2011, p.10)
2.07: Existing and near-future site conditions (background: Google Maps)
2.08: Farley Post Office exterior (H3 Hardy Collaborative, presentation to the Municipal Art Society, May 2013)
2.09: Proposed Amtrak concourse at Moynihan Station (HOK Architects)
2.10: Section through Moynihan Station concourse (HOK Architects)
2.11: Existing morning rush hour peak pedestrian volumes at Penn Station (Municipal Art Society, Penn Station Challenge design brief, p. 11)
2.12: Section diagrams illustrating SHoP’s proposed transfer of commercial floor area from the Penn Station site to perimeter sites, creating an “urban bowl” to allow sunlight to reach the new Penn Station and Gateway Park. (SHoP Architects, Gotham Gateway presentation, May 2013, pp. 18-19)
2.13: Rendering of the proposed new Madison Square Garden on the current site of the Morgan Processing Facility, with plaza level connections to the High Line and Gateway Park (SHoP Architects, Gotham Gateway presentation, May 2013, p. 34)
2.14: Site plan of SHoP’s Gotham Gateway proposal (SHoP Architects, Gotham Gateway presentaiton, May 2013, p. 17)
2.15: Seventh Avenue in the vicinity of Penn Station
2.16: Diagram showing arrival sequence at the current Penn Station from Herald Square (photos: Google Street View)
2.17: The High Line
2.18: Diagram showing arrival sequence at the current Penn Station from Hudson Yards and the proposed site of a new Madison Square Garden (rendering: SHoP Architects. photos: Google Street View)
2.19: MTA subway train at 145th Street
2.20: Diagram showing arrival sequence at the current Penn Station from the subway

3.01: Howard Roark in The Fountainhead (Warner Brothers, 1949)
3.02: Prefabricated warehouse structure in China (Qingdao Xinguangzheng Steel Structure Co., Ltd.)
3.03: Wawona Tunnel entrance to Yosemite Valley (Ansel Adams)
3.04: Santa Monica Pier
3.05: John Murdock’s arrival at Shell Beach in Dark City (New Line Cinema, 1998)
3.06: Yosemite Valley
3.07: Diagram showing spatial conditions of the approach to Yosemite Valley via the Wawona Tunnel (photos: Google Street View)
3.08: Santa Monica Pier outside of Los Angeles
3.09: Diagram showing sequence of spatial conditions at the end of Route 66 in Santa Monica, California. (photos: Google Street View)
3.10: Dark City (New Line Cinema, 1998)
3.11: Diagram showing arrival sequence at Shell Beach in the film Dark City (New Line Cinema, 1998)
3.12:  Exterior of Penn Station, facing southwest from near the present-day site of Macy’s (Wikimedia Commons)
3.13:  Exterior of Penn Station, facing northwest from the corner of Seventh Avenue and 31st Street (Wikimedia Commons)
3.14: The main concourse of Grand Central Terminal
3.15: The main concourse and waiting room of Philadelphia’s 30th Street Station
3.16: The original Pennsylvania Station (Detroit Publishing Company, via Shorpy Historical Photo Archive)
3.17: Diagram showing the arrival sequence of the original Penn Station (photos: Detroit Publishing Company)
3.18: Lyon Airport Station (photo: arcspace.com)
3.19: Diagram showing the arrival sequence at the Lyon Airport station
3.20: The Gotham Gateway (SHoP Architects)
3.21: Diagram showing the arrival sequence as proposed by SHoP Architects in the Gotham Gateway scheme (renderings: SHoP Architects)

4.01: Proposed regional rail connections
4.02: Proposed Midtown transit connections, including extending the 7 and L subway lines to Penn Station via Hudson Yards and new Madison Square Garden (background: Google Maps)
4.03: Improved departure signage showing all trains and stations in an integrated manner
4.04: Departure and ticketing via smartphone applications
4.05: Improved passenger information at platform entrance
4.06: Program diagram showing various program elements, adjacencies, and circulation
4.07: Street level plan
4.08: Mezzanine level plan
4.09: Concourse level plan
4.10: Platform level plan
4.11: Materials palette
4.12: Aerial axonometric facing north
4.13: East elevation
4.14: West elevation
4.15: North-south section
4.16: East-west section
4.17: Enlarged section
4.18: Cutaway axonometric
4.19: Eurostar platform at Londonís St. Pancras Terminal
4.20: View from tracks 14-15 to central concourse
4.21: Sculpture of John Betjeman at St. Pancras Terminal by Martin Jennings (Troika)
4.22: Central concourse facing north toward mezzanine ramps
4.23: Nave of the Cathedral of St. John the Divine, New York
4.24: Mezzanine facing east toward Seventh Avenue exit
4.25: Escalators of the original World Trade Center PATH station, as depicted in the Godfrey Reggio film Koyaanisqatsi (New Cinema, 1982)
4.26: Escalators from mezzanine to Seventh Avenue exit
4.27: 34th Street and Seventh Avenue at night
4.28: Facing south from the intersection of Seventh Avenue and 34th Street
4.29: Bryant Park, New York City
4.30: Facing east from SHoP’s proposed Gateway Park
4.31: Westminster Station on the London Underground
4.32: Escalators from Eighth Avenue entrance to mezzanine level
4.33: Paddington Bear sculpture by Marcus Cornish at Paddington Station, London
4.34: Waiting area and platform entrance at tracks 15-16
4.35: “The Meeting Place” by Paul Day at St. Pancras Terminal, London (AFP)
4.36: View of west concourse from mezzanine ramp

5.01: Main concourse

7.01: Ground level plan of Penn Station (Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library, Columbia University)
7.02: Interlocking diagram of Penn Station (Collection of John Cooper, via The Broad Way: A Pennsylvania Railroad Home Page, http://broadway.pennsyrr.com/Rail/Prr/Maps/Itlk/itlk_phl_nyc_main.html)
7.03: The former waiting room at Penn Station, with unsympathetic ticket counters added at left (Detroit Publishing Company, via Shorpy Historical Photo Archive)
7.04: The former waiting room at Penn Station, with unsympathetic ticket counters added at right (Detroit Publishing Company, via Shorpy Historical Photo Archive)
7.05: The main concourse at Penn Station, showing stairs to the exit concourse at center. (Detroit Publishing Company, via Shorpy Historical Photo Archive)
7.06: The main concourse at Penn Station, showing the glass block floor and entrance to the waiting room. (Detroit Publishing Company, via Shorpy Historical Photo Archive)
7.07: Train platforms at Penn Station, showing the separate exit concourse and glass block floors. (Detroit Publishing Company, via Shorpy Historical Photo Archive)
7.08: Train platforms at Penn Station, showing the separate exit concourse and glass block floors. (Detroit Publishing Company, via Shorpy Historical Photo Archive)
7.09: The former train shed at Penn Station (Detroit Publishing Company, via Shorpy Historical Photo Archive)
7.10: Street level plan (Jason Gibbs)
7.11: Upper and lower level plans (Jason Gibbs)
7.12: Platform plan and retail directory (Jason Gibbs)
7.13: Seventh Avenue entrance
7.14: Eighth Avenue entrance
7.15: Main concourse
7.16: Connecting concourse
7.17: Amtrak waiting area
7.18: New Jersey Transit waiting area
7.19: Long Island Rail Road waiting area
7.20: Train platforms